All Rights Reserved. Bravery seems to be a “Golden Mean” between these two extremes. Morality of an act is based in the act itself. They do not evolve accidentally. bravery Virtue Ethics (or Virtue Theory) is an approach to Ethics that emphasizes an individual's character as the key element of ethical thinking, rather than rules about the acts themselves or their consequences (Consequentialism).. deficiency So teleological ethical theories are concerned with moral aims or goals and with the proper methods for achieving this aim/goal/telos. rashness Rashness is when someone acts irrationally, endangering themselves (and perhaps others) by rushing into danger (for example, when someone runs into a burning building just as it is about to collapse). Virtue Ethics was prevalent throughout the Classical Period and continues to enjoy a great deal of influence today. Happiness as the Highest Aim Again, what is beneficial to the individual (what provides “true” happiness) and what is beneficial to the society are one and the same, according to Aristotle. It is inconceivable, Aristotle thinks, for an organism to be sustained when its happiness conflicts with ethics. We will return to happiness later, as Aristotle has his own peculiar understanding of what it means to be happy in this ethical sense. To be reasonable is to avoid extreme behavior (hence Aristotle’s anti-revolutionary attitude in his political works). This understanding cannot be acquired by learning and following general abstract rules (much like a child might learn his/her multiplication tables). moderation After all, if he is right, then happiness is the one thing that we all aim at and is the highest good. We are aiming for moderation (the “Golden Mean”) in our ethical acts, but we often “miss the mark.” Again, like becoming a good archer, virtue is something that develops over time as a result of experience, judgment, and practice. What this means is that virtue theories should not be contrasted with theories about how to make moral choices, like the teleological theory of John Stuart Mill or the deontological theory of Immanuel Kant. Rightness/wrongness is not in the conclusion itself, but is determined by how one reaches the conclusion. Stage 6 : The contrary of this is to be impulsive. For Aristotle, reason does not just mean reason of the intellect, but reason in behavior/action. of Basic Principles 1-Virtue Ethics Virtue Ethics is focusing on a person's character and not on the nature or consequences of the specific action taken,Virtue ethics, or moral ethics, is one of the theories of normative ethics. Temperance (according to Aristotle’s more specific definition) concerns moderation in matters of food and sex. The Greek word hamartia is a term used by Aristotle that is often translated as sin, but which literally means a “missing of the mark.” It describes a failure of competency and is often used in reference to archery. Teleology (for our purposes) is any philosophical theory concerned with ends and the proper means of attaining those ends. Uniqueness – what sets the individual apart from others in the community? The name comes from the Greek word telos (usually translated as end, goal, or aim). _ _ The Fallacy of the Mean If so, then it is not obvious how or why. Ethical systems can generally be broken down into three categories: deontological, teleological and virtue-based ethics. Aristotle agrees with Plato and Socrates that virtues (such as justice, temperance, and courage) are indispensable elements of “the good life”, but he rejects Plato’s insistence that training in Metaphysics and Epistemology is a pre-requisite for a fuller understanding of “our” good (Aristotle, unlike Plato, believed that one’s understanding of the “good” could differ depending on individual circumstances). All seven of these ethical systems are dealt with on a daily basis and sometimes it is hard to determine which one you are dealing with. Uniqueness, Function, Happiness: Part of Man’s Nature Which of the two extremes is “closer to” the mean of bravery? Aristotle’s Ethics Virtue and Happiness Teleology and Virtue •Teleology – Aristotle’s ethical theory is teleological in nature. There are, Teleological Views Who is further from the mean, the total prude or the total pervert? Teleological perspectives are based on various religious principles and moral standards. From the Greek for “duty” (deontos), ethics based in duty and one that reasons from foundational principles which tell us what our duties are. Uniqueness fosters virtue and reason. This may be just teleology, and not ethics. These emotional, deliberative, and social skills cannot be acquired by mere reflection, Aristotle argued, but must be developed over time through practice and proper upbringing. Virtue Ethics Theory Analysis 904 Words | 4 Pages. The first two are considered deontic or action-based theories of morality because they focus entirely on the actions which a person performs. For Aristotle, happiness is not synonymous with pleasure; it is rather a kind of self-fulfillment. Post-Conventional Think about it like this: would it be easier to develop bravery in someone who was cowardly, or would it be easier to do so with someone who acted rashly or recklessly? There are similarities and differences in deontological and teleological ethical systems. Temperance The Greek word Eudaimonia is typically translated as “happiness”, but it is often argued that “human flourishing” is more accurate and appropriate. The nature of man, according to Aristotle, consists in what s/he is uniquely fitted for (the individual’s function), therein lies his/her happiness. 333) Do you agree with Aristotle in this assertion? Aristotle insisted rather that what is needed to achieve virtue is a proper appreciation of the way in which individual goods (e.g. Ethical systems intertwine with one another and make up how humans respond and react to situations they are faced with every day. There are seven major ethical systems that are either deontological systems or they are teleological systems. The Principle of the Golden Mean When we follow our duty, we are behaving morally. Like much of the Western tradition, virtue theory seems to have originated in ancient Greek philosophy. Perhaps a key to understanding virtue theories of ethics is to regard them as ways to approach moral psychology rather than moral epistemology, or knowledge. Reason, claims Aristotle, is a characteristic which is unique to humans and a part of our nature. Remember in chapter 3 of Book I, Aristotle warns that the subject matter of ethics only allows for a certain amount of clearness and accuracy. Now let’s look at another virtue… Aristotle claims to discern such a pattern: most virtuous actions tend to be moderate. excess The name comes from the Greek word telos (usually translated as end, goal, or aim). Aristotle might point to happiness as a way of grounding his ethical system. Stage 3- Interpersonal accord and conformity Virtue Ethics: Intention to help Eudaimonia However, there is a distinction between reasons for something versus the nature of it. It looks like, at least in this case, the deficient extreme is closer to the mean than the excessive extreme (unlike in the previous example of bravery). Teleological and Deontological Ethical Systems Along with this appreciation, the individual must also acquire, through proper upbringing and habits, the ability to see on each occasion which course of action is best supported by reason. All societies develop of necessity with purpose/aim (telos). 1. Counterpoints in favor of the ethics of Jim’s restraint will also be discussed. Doesn’t Aristotle say that all virtues are an expression of the mean? When looking at two separate definitions, Deontological moral systems are characterized by a focus upon adherence to independent moral rules or duties. Happiness, he argues, is the one thing “we always choose for itself and never for the sake of something else…but we choose [other things] also for the sake of happiness, judging that through them we will be happy.” (pg. In this case, it would seem that the excessive extreme is closer to the mean than the deficient extreme. And once the archer achieves a certain level of skill, s/he does not go back to the rules of archery every time the bow is pulled (it becomes “second nature”). Metaphysical View – there is a natural order to the universe (everything fits, everything has a purpose/aim).

Red-headed Woodpecker Fun Facts, Gif Battle Questions, Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner Residency Programs 2020 Washington, Sajde Kiye Hain Lakhon Lyrics Translation, Scoville Board Game, Miele C3 Alize Ivory, Atari Lynx Emulator, Tomake Chai Title Track Lyrics Meaning, Dwarf Mango Tree For Sale, Yamaha Rx-v685bl Review, How To Update Blogger,