In such dialects, the lenis stops /p, t, tʲ, kʲ, k/ tend to be completely nasalised, thus doras ('a door') is [t̪ɔrəs], but an doras ('the door') is [ə n̪ˠɔrəs]. For the phonology of Irish, see, For assistance with IPA transcriptions of Scottish Gaelic for Wikipedia articles, see, The approximate distribution of preaspiration in Gaelic dialects, Phonetic realization of regular verbal noun particle. Certain consonants (in particular the fricatives [h x ç ɣ ʝ v] and the lenis coronals [l n ɾ ɾʲ]) are rare in initial position except as a result of lenition. Phonology. Let’s learn about its history, phonology, and grammar! Scottish Gaelic is a minority language of Scotland spoken by approximately 58,000 people, or 1% of the Scottish population (speaker numbers from the 2011 Census available in National Records of Scotland 2015 ). velars and labials). Descriptions of the language have largely focused on the phonology. Gaelic phonemes may have various allophones as well as dialectal or variations in pronunciation not shown in the chart above. Traditional Celtic literature has a standard notation for this distinction: 'Tense' consonants are indicated by capital letters, and 'slender' consonants are indicated by a following apostrophe: There is a phonemic contrast in length for sonorants in some dialects. The language uses many vowel combinations, which can be categorised into two types, depending on the status of one or more of the written vowels in the combinations. The velar nasal [ŋ] occurs as an allophone due to assimilation of a nasal vowel with a following velar segment. Extract. This page was last modified on 23 April 2015, at 19:33. Here, we refer to the language as ‘Gaelic’, pronounced in British English as /ɡalɪk/, as is customary within the Gaelic-speaking community. In some Gaelic dialects (particularly the north-west), stops at the beginning of a stressed syllable become voiced when they follow nasal consonants of the definite article, for example: taigh ('a house') is [t̪ʰɤj] but an taigh ('the house') is [ən̪ˠ d̪(ʱ)ɤj]; cf. Old Irish, the ancestor of Scottish Gaelic, had a four-way distinction for the sonorants 'n,' 'l,' and 'r.' those made at the same place of articulation) clash with grammatical lenition rules. Dec 18, 2013 - Scottish Gaelic phonology this is beautiful everybody who's Scottish should repin this support your people Ladefoged et al. The University of Arizona's Scottish Gaelic Phonology and Phonetics group is dedicated to empirical research on the sound system of Scottish Gaelic. Diphthongs vary significantly by dialect. The unaspirated stops in some dialects (east and south) are voiced (see below), as in Manx and Irish. Stewart, Thomas W. (2004). Would you like Wikipedia to always look as professional and up-to-date? One caveat which must precede the following material as well as any study of the sound system of Scottish Gaelic is that there is a range of dialectal variation in the language which can significantly affect the sounds of the words and even the phonemic inventory. For instance, the Gaelic "slender s" is so palatalised that it has become postalveolar [ʃ]. - Ternes, E. 1973. [9] Similar to the manifestation of aspiration, the slender consonants have a palatal offglide when initial and a palatal onglide when medial or final. Nasalized fricatives are sometimes included in the phonemic inventory (Ternes 1973, Gillies 1993, among others). History of the discipline Edit. The initial mutations in modern Scots Gaelic. The number of diphthongs in Scottish Gaelic depends to some extent on the dialect in question but most commonly, 9 or 10 are described: /ei, ɤi, ai, ui, iə, uə, ɛu, ɔu, au, ia/.[4]. Celtic linguists traditionally transcribe slender consonants with an apostrophe (or more accurately, a prime) following the consonant (e.g. The regular verbal noun suffix, written <(e)adh>, has several pronunciations. "Gaelic phonology" redirects here. In the modern languages, the phonetic difference between "broad" and "slender" consonants can be more complex than mere "velarisation"/"palatalisation". - Ó Murchú, M. 1988. Mutation as Morphology: Bases, Stems, and Shapes in Scottish Gaelic. However, the distinction is now based on different synchronic rules, often a result of analogy (Gillies 1993). The variation suggests that the unaspirated stops at the underlying phonological level are voiced, with devoicing an allophonic variant that in some dialects has become the most common realisation. Area 6 dialects in effect largely retain the Middle Irish stops, as has Manx and Irish. phonetically velar or velarised consonants) and "slender" (i.e. The survey collected data from informants as far south as Arran, Cowal, Brig o' Turk, east to Blairgowrie, Braemar and Grantown-on-Spey, north-east to Dunbeath and Portskerra and all areas west of these areas, including St Kilda. Stress is usually on the first syllable: for example drochaid ('a bridge') [ˈt̪rɔxɪtʲ]. The vowel [aː] in English father is back [ɑː] in Southern English. - MacAulay, D. 1992. The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Scottish Gaelic pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.. See Scottish Gaelic phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Scottish Gaelic, and Scottish Gaelic orthography for the exact correspondence between sounds and letters in Scottish Gaelic. In those dialects that do not have the length distinction, the syllable nucleus is often lengthened instead (MacAulay 2002): - "gall" 'foreigner' [kaL:] or [kauL] in dialects that don't have consonant length. Ternes (1973) proposes a four-way distinction ([p-pʰ-b-bʰ]) in his study of the Applecross dialect. Phonetic structures of Scottish Gaelic. In this category, vowels are written together to represent either a diphthong, or what was in Middle Irish a diphthong. in M. Ball and J. Fife (eds. Welsh naturalist Edward Lhuyd published the earliest major work on Scottish Gaelic after collecting data in the Scottish Highlands between 1699 and 1700, in particular data on Argyll Gaelic and the now obsolete dialects of north-east Inverness-shire.[1]. The phonemic analysis of Scottish Gaelic. - Gillies, W. 1993. Category 1: vowel plus glide vowels. also tombaca ('tobacco') [t̪ʰomˈbaʰkə]. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28: 1-41. The Survey of Scottish Gaelic Dialects occasionally reports labialised forms such as [l̪ˠw] or [l̪ˠv] outside the area they predominantly appear in, for example in Harris and Wester Ross. The length distinction is usually neutralized in unstressed syllables. Scottish Gaelic Phonology. An Integrated Model of the Phonology and Syntax of Celtic Mutations. It will enhance any encyclopedic page you visit with the magic of the WIKI 2 technology. In this category, vowels in digraphs/trigraphs that are next to a neighbouring consonant are for all intents and purposes part of the consonant, showing the broad or slender status of the consonant. Lack of preaspiration coincides with full voicing of the unaspirated stops. The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. The Celtic Languages. The nasal vowels are historically a result of assimilation. There are often wide variations in vowel quality in epenthetic vowels, as illustrated by a map showing the pronunciations of "dearbh."[8]. Certainly the phonology of Scottish Gaelic (and Manx) shows the same velarisation and glottalisation which is attested in Irish after the loss of interdental fricatives as the lenited forms of T and D. Phonetically and historically, these resemble the tones of Norway, Sweden and western Denmark; these languages have tonal contours typical for monosyllabic words and those for disyllabic words. This article is about the phonology of the Scottish Gaelic language. This affects orthographic l n r when followed by orthographic b bh ch g gh m mh; and orthographic m followed by l r s ch. Written < ( e ) adh >, has several pronunciations Foundation, Google, and refer closely. Usually neutralized in unstressed position ( Gillies 1993 ) a result of analogy Gillies. It will enhance any encyclopedic page you visit with the language have focused. 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